IX. The Four Major Validations of Calmodulin

(1) Scientific Validation

What is CalmodulinBiochemical Textbooks used in the United States Calmodulin and Signal Transduction Linda J. Van Eidik (Editor), D. Martin Watterson (Editor) Hardcover/Academic Press, Incorporated/June 1998   Calcium and Calmodulin Function in the Cell Nucleus Oriol Bachs, University Of BarcelonaSchool Of Medicine Staff/Hardcover/R.g.Landes co./January 1995   Calmodulin Claude B. Klee, P. Cohen (Editor)/Hardcover/Elsevier Science/January 1988   Calmodulin and Cell functions, Vol.356 D. Martin Watterson, Frank F. Vincenzi (Editor)/Hardcover/ New YorkAcademy of Sciences/ January 1980   Calmodulin and Cell Function, Vol.356 D. Martin Watterson, Frank F. Vincenzi (Editor)/Paperback/ New YorkAcademy of Sciences/ January 1980   Calmodulin and Intracellular CA-Plus-Plus Receptors Shiro Kakiuchi (Editor), Anthony R. Means (Editor), Hiroyoshi Hidaka (Editor)/Hardcover/ Perseus Books/January 1982     Hormone Action: Calmodulin and Calcium-Binding Proteins Anthony R. Means, Bert W. O”Malley/hardcover/Academic Press, Incorporated/ September 1983     Measuring Calcium and Calmodulin inside and outside Cells OLE H. Peterson, Ole H. Petersen (editor)/Paperback/Springer- Verlag New York, Incorporated/ November 2000

(2) Professional Validation

 What is calmodulinSCIENCE (Professional medical journal in the US and UK)   Calmodulin Plays a Pivotal Role in Cellular Regulation – Wai Yiu Cheung  Fig.6. Interrelations between the endocrine and nervous systems.  Stimulation of adenylate cyclase by peptide hormones and certain prostaglandin increases the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP.  Upon binding cyclic AMP, the regulatory subunit(R) of protein kinase(RC) is dissociated from the catalytic subunit(C), which becomes active, and catalyzes the phosphorylation of a protein, usually at the serine residue. The phosphorylation of a protein either stimulates or inhibits its biological activity; the phosphorylated protein serves as an effector or a modulator of a cellular process. Nervous stimulation either increases the influx of Ca or the release of Ca from the cell membrane, or sarcoplasmic reticulum.  The increase of free Ca activates Calmodulin, which forms a complex with the receptor protein to initiate a biochemical or physiological response. E. CaM. Ca may stand for Ca -dependent adenylate cyclase, phosphodiesterase, or any of the calmodulin -regulated enzymes listed in Fig.4.Calmodulin directly regulates the metabolism of cyclic AMP, which in turn could affect the availability of Ca   (90). Thus, one system can act independently of, in concert with, or in opposition to the effect of the other. For details, see the text.

Excerpt from SCIENCE, VOL.207, 4 JANUARY 1980

Calmodulin

Definition

What is calmodulin

Calmodulin is a protein found in most cells. It has four calcium ion binding sites. These sites allow cells to regulate cellular processes by changing the concentrations of calcium and Calmodulin in the cytosol. In plants, Calmodulin and calcium have been identified as possibly playing a second messenger role in thigmomorphogenic responses. In this image the yellow circles represent calcium ions. The picture is borrowed from: A NMR Poster on calcium Activation of Calmodulin.          

(3) 10 Years of Safety Tests

1. Long-term toxicity test

2. Acute toxicity test

Safe and without side effects Blood test and biopsy indicate normal liver and kidney functions; no toxic damage found. Imbibers were found to be healthy, with shiny coats of fur.   Ongoing and repeated tests have been carried out on experimental animals since 1972,  contact us for more details.

(4) 10 Years of Clinical Application

Tens of thousands of successful cases of clinical application have been recorded since 1972, contact us for more details.

What is calmodulin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A. Testimonials from tens of thousands of patients

B. Assured efficacy 

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