X.Five Scientifically Proven Functions of Calmodulin

(1) Bidirectional regulation of Ca2+concentration
(2) Regulates the nervous system and endocrine system
(3) Activates the enzyme system and energy starter
(4) Promotes cell regeneration
(5) Regulates the immune system

(1) Bidirectional regulation of Ca2+concentration

Prevents osteoporosis
Prevents hypercalcemia
Improves learning capacity and memory
Prevents lithiasis
Reduces the acidity of the body

(2) Regulates the nervous system and endocrine system

Calmodulin is able to regulate the nervous sytem
Calmodulin is able to regulate the endocrine system

Calmodulin Plays a Pivotal Role in Cellular Regulation  -  Wai Yiu Chenung

What is calmodulin

Interrelations between the endocrine and nervous systems. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase by peptide hormones and certain prostaglandin increases the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP. Upon binding cyclic AMP, the regulatory subunit(R) of protein kinase(RC) is dissociated from the catalytic subunit(C), which becomes active, and catalyzes the phosphorylation of a protein, usually at the serine residue.
Phosphorylation of a protein either stimulates or inhibits its biological activity; the phosphorylated protein serves as an effector or a modulator of a cellular process. Nervous stimulation either increases the influx of Ca or the release of Ca from the cell membrane, or sarcoplasmic reticulum. The increase of free Ca activates Calmodulin, which forms a complex with the receptor protein to initiate a biochemical or physiological response. E. CaM. Ca may stand for Ca -dependent adenylate cyclase, phosphodiesterase, or any of the calmodulin -regulated enzymes listed in Fig.4.Calmodulin directly regulates the metabolism of cyclic AMP, which in turn could affect the availability of Ca (90). Thus, one system can act independently of, in concert with, or in opposition to the effect of the other. For details, see the text.
Excerpt from SCIENCE, VOL.207, 4 JANUARY 1980

~ Instability of the nervous system can cause ~

Frequent urination
Insomnia
Problem with muscular contractions
Cramps
Inability to concentrate
Memory decline
Alzheimer’s disease

Calmodulin can regulate the human nervous system

Calmodulin assists in the release of nervous transmitters
■ Improves memory
■ Improves concentration
■ Prevents Alzheimer’s disease
■ Facilitates muscle contraction

Calmoculin soothes the sympathetic nervous system
■ Reduces cramps
■ Alleviates insomnia
■ Soothes the nerves

~ Imbalance in the human endocrine system can cause ~

Pimples and acnes
Various types of skin spots
Menstrual symptoms
Sexual dysfunction
Diabetes
Thyroid diseases

Regulation of the human endocrine system

Calmodulin chelated with calcium ion regulates  the endocrine system to enable proper secretion of various hormones

Alleviates menstrual discomforts
Reduces acnes
Prevents such endocrine-related diseases as diabetes, thyroid diseases, etc.
Reduces various types of skin spots
Improves sexual functions

(3) Activates the enzyme system and energy starter

Calmodulin Plays a Pivotal Role in Cellular Regulation  -  Wai Yiu Chenung

What is calmodulin

Summary. The role of Calcium ions(Ca2+) in cell functions is beginning to be unraveled at the molecular level as result of a recent research on calcium-binding proteins and particularly on calmodulin. These proteins interact reversibly with Ca to form a proteins Ca complex, whose activity is regulated by the cellular flux of Ca. Many of the effects of Ca appear to be exerted through calmodulin-regulated enzymes.

Calmodulin-regulates enzymes or cellular processes. The roles of calmodulin on some of the enzymes or cellular processes listed above have not been established beyond doubt. The evidence indicating the effect of calmodulin on phopholipase A2, guanylate cyclase, Ca dependent protein kinase, microtubule disassembly, and neuro-transmitter release appears preliminary. The postulated roles of calmodulin in postsynaptic, nuclear, and other functions are speculative.
Excerpt from SCIENCE, VOL.207, 4 JANUARY 1980

~ Enzyme systems dyfunction can cause ~

Bloating stomach and diarrhea
Peptic ulcers and duodenal ulcers
Gastritis and enteritis
Poor nutrition absorption, weight loss
Lowered cell metabolic rate

Calmodulin activates human enzymes

Calmodulin chelated with calcium ions activates enzyme system phospholipase adenylate cyclase Ca- adenosine triphosphate kinase

Promotes peristalsis of the intestines
Prevents peptic ulcers and duodenal ulcers
Prevents colon cancer and rectal cancer
Alleviates such gastrointestinal problems as bloating and diarrhea
Increases cell metabolic rate

Driven by ionic potential difference

Penetrates cell membrane in 1/2500 second

what is calmodulin

 

 

 

 

 

~Failure in releasing energy ~

Tired easily
Coarse skin
Rapid aging

~ Human energy starter ~

Calmodulin chelated with calcium ions Activated ATP kinase,Superoxide Dismutase( SOD) and produces energy and prevents oxidation, removes free radicals

Increases metabolism
Reduces fatigue
Increases vitality
Delays aging
Makes skin smoother and whiter

(4) Promotes cell regeneration

Cell Cycle-Dependant Activity Change Of Ca2+/Calmodulin – Dependent Protein Kinase II In NIH 3T3 Cells

Calmodulin – dependent Protein Kinase IV Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Maintenance

~ Reduced Cell Regeneration ~

Degenerative diseases
Impaired blood functions
Delayed wound healing
Cell diseases
Decreased repairing ability

~ Promote Cell Regeneration ~

Prevents degenerative diseases
Regulates blood functions
Accelerates wound healing
Ensures normal cell functions
Improves cell repairing ability

(5) Regulates the immune system

Distinct molecular recognition of calmodulin-binding sites in the neuronal and macrophage nitric oxide synthases: a surface plasmon resonance study.

Zoche M, Bienert M, Beyermann M, Koch KM

Institut fur Biologische Informationsverarbeitung, Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany

The neuronal nitric oxide synthase and the macrophage nitric oxide synthase are differently regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin.  We investigated the dynamics of calmodulin binding to the putative calmodulin-binding sites in both nitric oxide synthases. Peptides derived from the putative calmodulin-binding sites were synthesized and immobilized to a dextran layer of a biosensor chip.  Complex formation of calmodulin and the peptides was monitored by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and recorded as sensorgrams. We determined a dissociation constant Kd of 5.0 × 10(-9)S-1, respectively. Sensorgrams obtained with the macrophage nitric oxide synthase peptide were remarkably different.  Calmodulin, once bound to the peptide, did not dissociate. Association of calmodulin to the peptide occurred with the same rate constant (Ka=3×10(4)M-1s-1) regardless of the presence or absence of Ca2+. The affinity was in the subnanomolar range (KD) < 0.1×10-9 M. We conclude that the extremely tight binding of calmodulin to the NOS-II is solely controlled by the calmodulin-binding segment and not by other parts of the protein.   Biochemistry 1996 Jul 2; 35(26):8742-7

~ Reduced immunity in the human body ~

Cardiovascular diseases
Susceptibility to bacterial infections
Susceptibility to influenza
Malicious (Malignant) tumor (cancer)

 ~ When the body’s immune system is active ~

Calmodulin chelated with calcium ions and activated the marcrophages. It improved ability to devour pathogens, and improved ability for T cells to recognoze antigens

Prevents infectious diseases caused by bacteria, mildews and viruses.
Clears up tumors, lipoma, myoma
Prevents cardiovascular diseases
Removes abnormal pigmentation (age spots)
Improves allergic predisposition

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