IV. Understanding Free Radicals & V. How The Human Body Protect Itself Against Free Radicals

Definition

Free radicals are unstable atoms, molecules or particles with one or more unpaired electrons produced during body metabolism. In other words, atoms, molecules or particles with odd number of electrons are free radicals.

  • There are 3 sources of human body free radicals:

  1. Biological compound- synthesized from human body, for example, Nitric Oxide is synthesized from L-arginine, with the help of Nitric Oxide synthase.
  2. Metabolites- Cells use oxygen to transform protein, carbohydrate and other nutrients into energy. Through metabolic processes, approximately 3 % inhaled oxygen will turn into free radicals, these oxygen-derived free radicals are referred to as oxyradicals.
  3. Environmental Pollution- Including radiation, air and water pollution, certain food, drugs, herbicides or preservatives, smoke and etc.
  • Free radicals can cause chronic diseases damages

Free radicals cause oxidation, resulting ‘Oxidative Stress’. There are more than 100 diseases related to free radicals, for instance, atherosclerosis, stroke, heart diseases, cataract, diabetes and cancer. These are the common diseases that most people are diagnosed with. Furthermore, there is a close connection between free radicals and aging. In the last three decades, researches have found that excessive oxyradicals will oxidize low density lipoprotein (LDL), causing lipid peroxidation which will destroy cell membrane integrity and cause cardiovascular atherosclerosis.

Health Supplement Anti  Aging Supplement Antioxidant Supplement What is OLE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Health Supplement Anti  Aging Supplement Antioxidant Supplement What is OLE

 

 

 

 

V. HOW THE HUMAN BODY PROTECT ITSELF AGAINST FREE RADICALS

Health Supplement Anti  Aging Supplement Antioxidant Supplement What is OLEFree radicals damage on human body is actually a process of oxidation. Therefore, antioxidants are needed in order to reduce free radicals damage. The function of antioxidants is to release their own electrons to neutralize free radicals activity so that damages to cells and hence human body due to oxidation are being prevented.  Human body has two types of antioxidants, namely Enzymatic and Non-enzymatic antioxidants:

  • Enzymatic Antioxidants

Anti-oxidation endogenous enzymes, which are the first defense line for anti-oxidation in human body. The three most common primary antioxidants are as below:

1.  Superoxide dismutase, SOD.

SOD can transform superoxide anion free radicals into harmless oxygen molecules. SOD is generated through gene expression. If there is gene expression disorders, oxyradicals will not be eliminated from the body on time and this will lead to various diseases. Gene expression of SOD varies with people and decline as we age. Environmental factor changes gene expression levels too. Hence, the control mechanism of gene expression is a very important functional genes-research.

2.  Catalase, CAT

A certain portion of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)produced from SOD activity is converted by Catalase (CAT) into water and oxygen. Research has shown that animals with 20% more CAT have a longer life span compared to the common ones. This shows that CAT eliminates free radicals from cells and further prevents aging.

3. Glutathione peroxidases, GPx.

Glutathione peroxidases (GPx) is a very strong antioxidant. GPx not only captures free radicals directly, it can also work together with other antioxidants such as vitamin C and E to form a strong anti-oxidation system to effectively prevent cells from oxidation damage.

  • Non-enzymatic Antioxidants

Secondary antioxidants are antioxidative nutrients obtained from food sources and cannot be made from human body. However, this type of antioxidants can be easily oxidized. The primary disadvantage of a secondary antioxidant is that its redox potential does not match that of human. There are three types of common antioxidative nutrients:

  1. Vitamin C:  react with hydrogen-based radicals to inactivate free radicals. As vitamin C is water soluble, it is easily lost when its source is being cut and cooked.  Excessive intake of vitamin C will be excreted from the body. Since it is water soluble and cannot be stored, daily supplement of vitamin C is a must.
  2. Vitamin E: to prevent the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation, prevent deterioration of lipid and cell membrane and protect the integrity of cell membrane.
  3. Beta-carotene: is a type of carotenoid that captures oxyradicals to disrupt the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation.

At present, there are actually hundreds of different antioxidants available. However, they can only be obtained from food sources and cannot be made from human body. Besides, the synthesis of human antioxidative enzymes is affected by a number of factors, such as age, gene, metabolism, immunity and so on, and cannot be controlled by one’s will. When the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants systems in human body are unsound or inadequate due to aging, then the body is prone to free radicals damage.

  • The Best Way to Get Rid of Free Radicals: Supply Electrons Directly

Free radicals with unpaired electrons are generated in just a jiffy of tens or hundreds of femtoseconds (10-15 seconds). To avoid cells damage from free radicals, one must get an immediate supply of electrons to neutralize free radicals and reach anti-oxidation. The most suitable redox potential for human body lies between -150 mv to -250 mv.  According to the principles of cell homeostasis, only when antioxidants with redox potential that matches that of human body directly supply electrons to stabilize the active free radicals, then only the best antioxidant effect can be achieved. In other words, the lower the redox potential of a substance, the more it can provide instantaneous supply of electrons to eliminate the free radicals and set cells free from its damage. This will give the best result in anti-oxidation. Before antioxidants with lower redox potential were developed, antioxidative nutrients can only achieve anti-oxidation at a higher redox potential. Moreover, these antioxidative nutrients have a number of shortcomings in which they are very difficult to generate, takes longer time to give its effects, and even if so, the effects are not significant. OLE not only fulfills the redox potential of human body, it also provides sufficient nutrients for cells usage. A combination of these two favourable conditions complement each other to give the best antioxidant result. In addition, OLE stimulates and activates the production of antioxidant enzymes from human body to enhance health to its best.

The Oxidation-Reduction Potentials of Common Antioxidants

Antioxidant

Oxidation-Reduction Potential

Vitamin C

280

Vitamin E

480

Uric Acid

590

Glutathione

920

TF1 (Theaflavin 1)

510

TF3 (Theaflavin 3)

540

1st OLE    

-200

 Health Supplement Anti  Aging Supplement Antioxidant Supplement What is OLE

 

 

 

 

 

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